August 23, 2009

50 Milligrams Of Clomid

oishik 50 Milligrams Of Clomid, INDIANS ACROSS THE WORLD celebrated their independence day with dampened fervour over the past week, to salvage nationalist pride out of the economics of infection and pathology of recession. While all this was happening, two incidents caught my attention.

First, was a talk show on CNN-IBN discussing whether independent India is open to homosexuality, aired during the Independence Day week. The ‘experts’ invited to speak were responding to a CNN-IBN and Hindustan Times survey in which almost 70 per cent of the respondents felt that homosexuality should be illegal. The ‘liberals’ were represented by the likes of Shyam Benegal, Mukul Keshavan and Gautam Bhan. The ‘conservative’ was a young religious leader (whose name I cannot remember) and sitting on the fence was Jaya Jaitley, 50 Milligrams Of Clomid. 50 Milligrams Of Clomid ebay, The discussion sparked many a fire, but was hackneyed – the same arguments and the same defences that are not worth repeating here. Yet, the unprecedented ‘openness’ with which the audience was engaging with the issue of sexuality, and alternative sexuality, on prime time television was an encouraging sign. Such has been the case for some time now, and especially since the historic Delhi High Court judgment of July 2, 2009 decriminalizing, all forms of adult, 50 Milligrams Of Clomid usa, private and consensual sex. The findings of the survey (even if statistics are graver than damned lies) does throw light on the societal prejudice that ‘queers’ face in India, despite progressive judgements. 50 Milligrams Of Clomid, The sharp divide in beliefs and perspectives among the panelists on issues of sexual morality finally reached a climax through a moment of nationalism-induced catharsis. Sagarika Ghose, the anchor, abruptly ended the show by asking everyone to stand up to the national anthem. And as per her instructions everyone did – the conservatives, the liberals, 100mg 50 Milligrams Of Clomid, the fence sitters, the homosexuals, the heterosexuals, the non-heterosexuals – everyone stood upright soaking in the buoyant verses of Jana, Gana, Mana and it seemed a perfect end to the crisis of India’s morals, culture, sexuality and religion where national pride erased all differences and made us realise that, after all, we are all ‘Indians’ first – like SRK’s Chak De hockey team, 50 Milligrams Of Clomid craiglist.

The second event takes us to New York, USA. On August 16, when the India Day Parade was to march down Madison Avenue and when SRK’s detention at the Newark airport occupied most of the airwaves and columns, ‘queer’ Indian groups were denied permission to join the march. This was nothing new but a rude shock nevertheless, 50 Milligrams Of Clomid. In the 1990s the South Asian Lesbian and Gay Association (SALGA) fought hard to get themselves included in the parade holding a parallel march every year till 2000, when finally they too were granted permission to participate. This year was special for the ‘queer’ diaspora because they were equally excited about the Naz judgement, 50 Milligrams Of Clomid japan, but the Federation for Indian Associations – that organises the parade failed to respond to SALGA’s application to march, effectively barring them from Sunday’s parade.

These two incidents raise an important question: What is it about the idea of nationalist belonging that is so seductive even for groups that have been marginalized in the name of nationalism. There are two possible responses to this question: first, responding to nationalism’s call can be understood as an assertion of the belief that our ‘cultural heritage’ which  nationalism claims to celebrate is composed of indigenous forms of non-heterosexuality and that sexuality is not a western import that threatens to contaminate this heritage. 50 Milligrams Of Clomid, This is a counter-cultural position that argues against the point that gays and lesbians are a blot on the face of India’s rich culture. Second, the falling back on nationalism is in the hope of gaining full and equal citizenship status.

Both these responses are useful positions to begin with, but subsequently lose rigour and finally get enveloped in the all-encompassing blanket of nationalism that ostensibly erases difference in the name of maintaining diversity. The first position demands that we excavate the history of non-heterosexuality in India – but such a move can unknowingly begin to use the same registers for understanding history as the Hindu Right does, 750mg 50 Milligrams Of Clomid. For instance, Gay rights activist Ashok Row Kavi has argued (I run the risk of oversimplifying his position) that Hindu culture has been open to homosexuality, but it was only when the Muslim ‘invaders’ plundered India, that India’s tolerance with sexual diversity took a plunge. Irrespective of whether such an argument is historically accurate or not, it uses the same logic as that of the Hindu Right, 50 Milligrams Of Clomid.

The second position is a purely liberal one that equates nationalism with citizenship. While these two terms are used interchangeably on many occasions, they are not synonymous. While citizenship guarantees unconditional access to human rights to all citizens, 50 Milligrams Of Clomid australia, nationalism mediates who qualifies as a citizen in the first place. Whether you are ‘Indian’ enough to be considered an Indian citizen is an evaluation that takes place within the paradigms of nationalism. 50 Milligrams Of Clomid, The previous position attempts just this: to argue that homosexuality is ‘Indian’ (or Hindu) enough. The trouble is that you require evidence that still has to prove the homosexual’s ‘Indian-ness’, and belonging continues to be predicated on notions of national homogeneity – you might be considered citizen enough if you sing the national anthem, or perform being the good citizen. But nationalism’s exclusionary logic will continue to place you on the shadow lines of citizenship. However, if queers continue to tow the line of nationalist acceptance as a form of gaining rights, there is a danger of what Jasbir Puar calls ‘Homonationalism’, by which she means that homosexual solidarity starts getting predicated on nationalism’s terms, 200mg 50 Milligrams Of Clomid. For instance, Hindu homosexuals might say that they are more ‘Indian’ than Muslim homosexuals and claim recognition on that ground. Puar’s reference is to homosexual solidarity that emerged post-9/11 directing wrath at Islamic countries not only for what they did to America, but also for how homosexuals are persecuted there in the name of religion, 50 Milligrams Of Clomid.

The reason for my fragmented narration of the above events is an exercise in autocritique that all of us must subject ourselves to, especially if we are committed to the idea of emancipation and are aware of the cruel tropes of the register called ‘nation’. For instance, Ultra Violet describes itself as a ‘site for “Indian” feminists’. What does this identification mean. Does ‘Indian’ refer to national affiliation, 1000mg 50 Milligrams Of Clomid, or does it refer to location. 50 Milligrams Of Clomid, Who is an ‘Indian’ feminist. And what might be ‘Indian’ feminism. How ‘Indian’ will feminism have to be to qualify as ‘Indian’. If some believe that feminism is a western idea that contaminates women in India and make them man-haters and family-breakers – how should a woman evince her feminist belief by not disrupting her ‘Indian-ness’. An excavation of this nature – like excavating ‘Indian’ homosexuality – runs the risk of essentializing history, culture as well as sexuality and gender. It also makes feminists and queers who get engulfed within the nationalist narrative strange bedfellows with the religious Right, 50 Milligrams Of Clomid. We see the religious right giving sexuality as much attention – bar dancers, sex trafficking, ‘obscenity’, sex education and indeed homosexuality – in effect, 10mg 50 Milligrams Of Clomid, sometimes unknowingly, with dangerously similar and shared agendas with feminists and queers, that restrict affirmative, safe and responsible sexual practices.

I am troubled by the foregrounding of the idea of the ‘Nation’ as the benchmark for understanding ‘belonging’, especially for those who have been excluded through nationalism’s dominant narrative – that is both compulsorily heteronormative and patriarchal, and virulently communal. And even if we are attentive to its over shadowing weight that erases subaltern histories, experiences and diversities, we are unable to successfully confront its poetic seduction.

I raise these concerns as an Indian queer feminist who hates to stand up to perform ‘nationalism’ when the national anthem plays in movie halls, but always inevitably, reluctantly does.

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January 27, 2009

Pediatric Dose Diflucan

THIS IS Pediatric Dose Diflucan, Part 2 of the two-part interview with Madhu Bhushan of Vimochana.

UB: The feminist movement has always been very critical of militarism and war. Can u tell us more about your involvement with these issues?

MB: While Vimochana’s specific concern was and is the socially sanctioned personal forms of violence perpetrated on women within the home and outside (dowry tortures, murders and other forms of marital violence, sexual harassment and rape of women, trafficking and commodification of women), our wider preoccupation has always been with the larger forms of violence in society, 1000mg Pediatric Dose Diflucan. So our engagement is also with the more public and political forms of violence stemming from ideologies like that of communalism, fundamentalism, nationalism and militarisation which are leading to greater human insecurity, institutionalised intolerance and the increasing brutalisation of patriarchies both within the home and outside.

Towards the vision of making violence against women unthinkable and creating a violence-free world for all, Pediatric Dose Diflucan canada, especially the more marginalised and vulnerable communities, we have been part of larger global movements like Women in Black and the Courts of Women.

Women in Black has inspired groups of women from communities and nations in conflict to come together in different parts of the world to stand in their own towns and cities, at street corners, in market squares and other public places for one hour every week, dressed in black, silently protesting the many forms of wars and violence which are increasingly becoming intrinsic to their everyday realities, Pediatric Dose Diflucan. Inspired by the grief-stricken mothers of the Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires, Argentina, who walked in silence in the market squares with photographs of their disappeared and dead sons, the movement began in Tel-Aviv, in Haifa, Pediatric Dose Diflucan india, in Jerusalem. Palestinian and Israeli women came together in public to speak of a homeland for the Palestinians, to protest the politics of hatred that was wrecking their homes, breaking their lives.

The Movement then spread to other parts of the world. Pediatric Dose Diflucan mexico, In Belgrade from the beginning of the war in 1991 in which the Serbian army systematically used rape was used as a weapon of ethnic cleansing against the Bosnians, women from both nationalities stood together demanding that war rape be treated as a war crime. Pediatric Dose Diflucan, The cry was picked up in other countries including Brazil, Philippines, Germany, Netherlands, US and the UK.

Vimochana initiated Women in Black in Bangalore, India, in 1993 to protest the razing of the mosque in Ayodhya and the rapes of muslim women that were even televised and broadcast in Surat to teach a lesson to the minority community. Since then, we have stood against forms of wars that include violence against women within the home and outside -- nuclearisation of Nation States, Pediatric Dose Diflucan overseas, cultural nationalism, linguistic chauvinism, the US occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan etc. We have organised vigils in Bangalore and at regional and global fora like the World Social Forum and the Beijing Women’s Conference.

Through the Asian Women’s Human Rights Council we have also organised vigils as part of the Courts of Women, Pediatric Dose Diflucan coupon, more than 30 of which have been held in different regions of the world in partnership with local organisations and networks. Organised as alternative political spaces in civil society, the Courts of Women seek to rewrite the collective narrative of resistance to war through the individual testimonies of women who have been victims, survivors and resistors to different forms of violence, Pediatric Dose Diflucan. For instance, the World Court of Women against War organised in Cape Town, South Africa, in 2001, heard diverse voices against war including those of women from the killing fields of Cambodia; the Hibakusha of Japan; victims of Agent Orange in Vietnam and ethnic cleansing in Bosnia; 'comfort women' from Philippines; victims of the genocide in Rwanda, nuclear testing in the Pacific, 100mg Pediatric Dose Diflucan, economic sanctions and carpet bombing of Iraq; the stolen generation in Australia; victims of  racism and apartheid in South Africa and many others. Together they were able to weave together a powerful indictment of the ethic of militarisation that is seeping into every crevice of our culture, militarising not only our politics, but also our minds. Heard by a visionary Jury drawn from state and civil society, Pediatric Dose Diflucan japan, the Court sought to find new roads to peace, through justice, through reconciliation, through healing of communities, through addressing wars at their very roots.

UB: What do ‘Peace building’ and ‘Justice’ mean in the present context, according to you?

MB: Given the dehumanising militarisation of our times, Pediatric Dose Diflucan paypal, peace building would mean recovering forgotten faiths, regenerating a compassionate and ethical politics, and rebuilding inclusive communities that are able to reaffirm life in its myriad forms. Pediatric Dose Diflucan, Starting from rejecting militarised faiths rooted in a hyper masculinised polity, it would mean the creation of defiant islands of harmony in the tumultuous seas of war and violence.

In this context we need to redefine and reaffirm the right to survive of those people, processes and practices being rendered redundant by the dominant structures of knowledge and of politics. 500mg Pediatric Dose Diflucan, Justice would mean the right to reinvent a democracy and polity that empowers us to regain control over our own resources -- economic, cultural and political -- in such a way that it enhances and not diminishes our potential to be truly just, peaceful and responsible to the most vulnerable within us.

For our future as individuals, as families, as communities, as countries, as a world, depends now on the choices that we make and the paths that we leave behind for the generations that follow. We owe it to all our children to leave them a legacy not of fear that comes from the barrel of a gun, but a freedom from fear that comes from the security of trust and belonging.

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August 18, 2008

Zithromax Directions

Meena KandasamyDR RUTH VANITA Zithromax Directions, (b.1955), is a renowned academic and author specializing in lesbian and gay studies. Some of her acclaimed books include Queering India: Same-Sex Love and Eroticism in Indian Culture and Society (2002), Love's Rite: Same-Sex Marriage in India and the West (2005), and Gandhi's Tiger and Sita's Smile: Essays on Gender, Sexuality and Culture (2005).

In this interview she answers questions about the representation of LGBT issues in the English media, mainstream cinema, Indian literature and the women's movement.

Meena Kandasamy: The pride parades in Bangalore, Zithromax Directions india, New Delhi and Kolkata have garnered a fair share of media representation. How do you view this development?

Ruth Vanita: This is not a new development as far as the Indian national media in English is concerned, as they have been largely positive and sympathetic towards LGBT issues. They covered the early protests by ABVA and others in a supportive way and have also been instrumental in bringing same-sex suicides and weddings to public attention over the last three decades. If the Indian language media has also reported the pride parades sympathetically, that is a great development, Zithromax Directions.

Meena: A historic moment for lesbianism in India was the Deepa Mehta film Fire and the frenzy it evoked from Hindu right-wing fundamentalists. How do you, in your experience as a scholar on sexuality in India, perceive their allegation that same-sex love is 'foreign' to Indian culture.
Ruth: As Same-Sex Love in India: Readings from Literature and History (2000), 100mg Zithromax Directions, co-edited by Saleem Kidwai and me, has unequivocally demonstrated, same-sex love and sexual relationships have been represented and discussed in Indian literatures for at least two millennia. We collected translated texts from 15 Indian languages written over a period of 2000 years, which depict same-sex relationships. Zithromax Directions, The attitudes range from disapproval to non-judgmental depiction to celebration, and the languages include Sanskrit, Tamil, Marathi, Gujarati, Hindi, Bengali. So the myth that homosexuality is a Western import has been laid to rest although some people may still be in denial about it. An updated edition of this book will appear from Penguin India this November. 10mg Zithromax Directions, Meena: How do you find mainstream Indian cinema's depiction of the LGBT community. Transgenders are almost always mocked or shown as ridiculous; homosexuality has become a butt of jokes in films like Kal Ho Naa Ho; and lesbianism seems to be something that does not figure in their imagination (even in Love Story 2050, Harman Baweja wants to take rebirth as man for the only reason that he can love a woman, because in his understanding, if he were a woman he cannot love another woman).
Ruth: My Brother Nikhil depicted a gay male relationship with sensitivity, and was well received, Zithromax Directions. Also, Hindi cinema, by depicting close male friends as inseparable and willing to live and die together (e.g. songs like “Yeh Dosti" in Sholay) has provided a space for non-heterosexual relationships to be seen as exclusive, Zithromax Directions us, even primary. In my book, Gandhi’s Tiger and Sita’s Smile (Yoda Press, 2006) I wrote an essay on this kind of depiction of exclusive, primary, male-male relationships in the films Dosti and Tamanna. Tamanna also depicted the hijra community very positively, Zithromax Directions japan, as saving the life of a girl child from her wealthy, upper caste, biological father who wants to kill her. Zithromax Directions, In numerous films, cross-dressing scenes, where a woman dresses as a man and sings and dances with another woman, are highly suggestive of lesbianism. More importantly, as both I and film studies scholar Shohini Ghosh have argued, Hindi cinema’s celebration of love as socially defiant and the most important element of life (think of the long cinematic history of depicting positively intercaste, interclass and inter-regional love such as widow remarriage etc.) has helped the public imagination become more sympathetic to disapproved kinds of love. It is not coincidental that Indian pride parades have used the film song line “Pyar kiya to darna kya” (from Mughal-e Azam) as a slogan.
Meena: From Chennai to Chattisgarh, 1000mg Zithromax Directions, there has been an alarming increase in the number of lesbian and gay suicides in India, and these have been taking place in the backdrop of the pride parades. Do you feel these people are pushed to their deaths in the same manner in which inter-caste, inter-religious lovers are. Is homophobia indicative of the Indian society's general unwillingness to accept people who are breaching conventional and sanctioned social codes (of caste/ religion/ gender), Zithromax Directions.
Ruth: In my book Love’s Rite: Same-Sex Marriage in India and the West (Penguin India, 2005), I analyse in detail the legal, Zithromax Directions uk, political, social and historical dimensions of both the couple suicides and the same-sex weddings that have been reported from all over the country over the last 30 years. There is no evidence that the frequency has increased; rather, it is the reporting that has increased. Yes, the opposition that same-sex lovers face is basically the same kind that heterosexual lovers face for inter-caste, inter-religion, cross-class, inter-regional, Zithromax Directions craiglist, international and many other kinds of disapproved relationships. However it is very important to remember that there have always been and still are supportive forces within Indian society as well. Zithromax Directions, While many families drive couples to suicide or forcibly separate them and push them into arranged marriages, many other families also come to accept these relationships and even participate actively in the weddings including female-female weddings.

Negotiation and compromise are important elements of Indian family life. I have found stories in the eleventh-century Sanskrit story cycle, the Kathasaritsagara, showing how families negotiate with children and finally accept radical cross-class, cross-caste marriages (such as a marriage between a princess and a Chamar), Zithromax Directions mexico, arguing that the couple must have been wed in a former birth. I analyze such stories in Love’s Rite. Similar arguments about gender and rebirth (the soul has no gender and marriage is a union of souls; people fall in love because of their attachment from former births and it is therefore futile to oppose such attachments) have been put forward by Hindu priests who have conducted same-sex weddings in recent times.

Meena: How would you rate Indian feminist movements and their engagement with queer rights. Do you feel that this is yet another aspect that has been ignored along with questions of caste and disability, Zithromax Directions. As somebody who co-founded Manushi,  and who is assocated with Indian feminism for over three decades now, you could enlighten us on this aspect.

Ruth: In the 1970s, although lesbians were among the leading activists of most women’s organizations, there was almost no open discussion of the issue, 250mg Zithromax Directions, and if it ever came up, it was dismissed as symptomatic of Western decadent self-indulgence. This was largely due to the strong Left wing ties of Indian women’s organizations. The Left party in India has not yet shed this unrealistic approach to homosexuality. However, the non-party women’s movement has grown and changed dramatically -– lesbianism is now openly discussed and taken seriously as a political issue.

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July 10, 2008

Cialis Side Affect

I FOUND this Cialis Side Affect, news story about Indian "sanitation workers" (scavengers, if we avoid the euphemism) modelling in New York pretty bizarre. I do hope you'll read the article before proceeding to comment, Cialis Side Affect australia, but in a nutshell: 36 Indian sanitation workers were invited to a conference as part of the UN's International Year of Sanitation. In New York, they took part in a fashion show called Mission Sanitation, 100mg Cialis Side Affect, walking the ramp beside professional models.

Scavenging is deeply dehumanizing work, 20mg Cialis Side Affect, and an end to the profession would be truly welcome. But why modelling (not professionally, I must add, 500mg Cialis Side Affect, but as a novelty event)?

A particularly interesting part of the article:

The ceremony was especially poignant for Usha Chomar, Cialis Side Affect us, because she was unofficially crowned as princess of sanitation workers.

i don't think that modelling is necessarily un- or anti-feminist. But I also don't think that the simple juxtapositioning of a highly enviable profession and a highly undesirable one makes any real statement. I also do not believe that beauty pageants actually empower anyone at all, except perhaps the winners themselves, but in ways that are carefully orchestrated by the real power-holders, Cialis Side Affect. If half the promises made during pageants were actually kept, 50mg Cialis Side Affect, the world would be a much, 1000mg Cialis Side Affect, much different place.

Maybe my feminism is a bit old-school, but attending a UN conference and then "doing some modelling" sort of sounds like a big drop to me. Coming out of one of the most degrading professions in the world.., 200mg Cialis Side Affect. and then hitting the catwalk, Cialis Side Affect australia, en masse. Is that really activism or achievement. Or just another spin on that old oppression-chic cliche, 20mg Cialis Side Affect. I have no doubt that some of the participants must have really enjoyed the experience. But it's the motives of the organisers that I question. When will we stop treating underprivileged people -- of any background -- as pawns that add a touch of controlled reality and an ambience of altruism to otherwise extremely unrelated situations?

What do you think?

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March 29, 2008

Colchicine Pill 020

WHILE THE FEMINIST Colchicine Pill 020, movement may have focused more on the right to abortion than other reproductive rights, there is a growing acknowledgment in the US and elsewhere that women's right to safe, natural childbirth is being severely threatened by the imposition of the medical model. In the medical system, pregnant women are treated as 'sick' and childbirth as a dangerous event deserving of any and all intervention designed to make the process as 'safe' as possible. A spate of blogs and books written by moms, midwives and other reproductive health advocates indicates that women aren't taking this lying down, Colchicine Pill 020 australia. (Pun intended--research has shown that giving birth while lying on one's back is detrimental to the labouring woman). A couple of books are: "Birth: The Surprising History of How We Are Born" by Tina Cassidy (see her blog here), and "Pushed: The Painful Truth About Childbirth and Modern Maternity Care" by Jennifer Block. On the movie front, there's Ricki Lake's "The Business of Being Born," "Home Delivery," and "What Babies Want."

Ironically, in this time where the use of technology is at an all time high, maternal mortality rates in the US are also abysmally high largely due to the increase in c-sections. Not only are women questioning births attended by doctors, but by midwives or any trained person. To quote an excerpt from "Pushed":

Unassisted birth isn’t new, 30mg Colchicine Pill 020. In the 1960s and 1970s it was often the only alternative to a hospital birth—a strapped down, separated from husband, guaranteed episiotomy birth—and the women who did it also gave birth to organized midwifery. Colchicine Pill 020, “That’s what we were doing in the 1970s before there were any midwives,” says Peggy O’Mara, editor of Mothering. Colchicine Pill 020 overseas, “It was part of the whole back-to-land movement and commune movement.” It was also a natural extension of the early feminist, grab-a-speculum-and-mirror-and-reclaim-your-body ethos, she said. “And I consider it a really legitimate response to certain environments. Where I lived in southern New Mexico, Colchicine Pill 020 mexico, for instance, the choices were so poor that we just wanted to figure it out ourselves.”...For O’Mara, unassisted birth was the best women could do under the circumstances.
Until recently, Colchicine Pill 020 india, most women in India had homebirths, usually assisted by a dai (traditional midwife) or other woman experienced in childbirth. But now, urban middle-class women are expected to birth in hospitals and the rate for c-sections among this strata is virtually the same as that of the industrialised countries. Still, dais do deliver 70% of India's babies, given the fact that the same percentage of the population is rural, Colchicine Pill 020. Yet the role of dais is ever-changing due to the state's insistence upon training in medical standards of care, 750mg Colchicine Pill 020, and their traditional knowledge is not respected (see the book "Birthing with Dignity" by Diane Smith and Jagori).

Newindpress.com has just published the story of Reba Daniel, who chose to give birth with only her husband present. Colchicine Pill 020 uk, Unassisted birth must happen all the time here to women who don’t have other options. But this is the first story I’ve found where an educated, professional woman did this of her own accord. Colchicine Pill 020, Equally as impressive is that the article's author is appreciative, and not critical, of the mother’s choice, since that is not how unassisted childbirth is being portrayed in Western media. The website Ms. Daniel got her idea from is here: http://unassistedchildbirth.com/

Yes, Colchicine Pill 020 canada, it is true that India has the highest rate of maternal mortality in the world, the main reasons being poverty, hunger and disease. But to those women who are physically fit and considering a hospitalised birth, I ask: why not give a thought to unassisted childbirth or homebirth with a dai.

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January 24, 2008

Cyanobacteria Flagyl

‘I BEGAN WORKING Cyanobacteria Flagyl, when I was ten. I used to look after a child for which I was paid ten rupees a month. Today I am almost forty and I continue to work as a domestic maid. The difference is that my bones ache and I do not have the same energy. This is what happens to most of us who do domestic work. This job has no PF or ESI or anything like that, Cyanobacteria Flagyl. We work at others' houses our entire lives and are left with nothing at the end,’ Maariyamma is angry but she continues to chop the double beans with great ease, 150mg Cyanobacteria Flagyl. ‘I have spent fifty rupees for these vegetables today, but see how little I have got. Things have become very expensive these days.’

Maariyamma is the secretary of the Karnataka Domestic Workers Union, which has been functioning for three-and-a-half years and currently has 800 members. I am with her at her house in Byrasandra slum in Bangalore. Cyanobacteria Flagyl, Vinutha and Jayamma, also part of the union, join us. 10mg Cyanobacteria Flagyl, ‘We have our union badge. Whenever there is any problem with domestic workers in our area, we wear the badge and go to their help,' explains Maariyamma.

'Often, domestic workers are falsely blamed for cheating and stealing things. I agree that we are poor. But that does not make us dishonest all the time, 500mg Cyanobacteria Flagyl. In many houses even to this day, they have separate tumblers and plates for us, Cyanobacteria Flagyl. We take bath, dress smartly, we drink from clean steel glasses in our homes, we eat fresh food , yes we may not afford it daily but we do buy good food for our children. Cyanobacteria Flagyl australia, So there is no need to treat us like that!'

A study conducted by the domestic workers union reveals that 70% of domestic workers are hired because people need to go outside to work. In other words, they are a crucial cog in the economic wheel, allowing many homes to earn an additional income. Yet, they remain poorly paid and face multiple discriminations. Cyanobacteria Flagyl, Most domestic workers are women from marginalised classes and castes and even here, in their workplace, they receive neither fair wages nor recognition as employees.

Maariyamma explains: ‘There is no one form of payment. It depends on the employer, Cyanobacteria Flagyl craiglist. Some are paid as low as Rs 300 for half a day's work. There is nobody to monitor it. And we have no leave. We work on Sundays as well.’

'Many domestic workers are single earners in their families, Cyanobacteria Flagyl. Often, men do not have any regular work. 1000mg Cyanobacteria Flagyl, The salary we get is never enough,' Jayamma adds. 'I need to pay Rs 500 for school fees. What will I feed them. Cyanobacteria Flagyl, This is how we end up taking loans. We met the Labour Commissioner and the minister with a letter signed by all our union people asking for the government to take steps but nothing has been done.’

The Karnataka Government introduced a Minimum Wage Act in the year 2004 for domestic work. This for the first time domestic workers were included under the schedule of 'workers'. The law stipulates that each task takes 45 minutes, 30mg Cyanobacteria Flagyl. For one such task done on six days a week, they should receive Rs 249 per month. It also says that for an eight-hour working day, they should receive Rs 1699 per month, Cyanobacteria Flagyl. Families larger than four persons should pay 10% more as wages.

Not many people know about the law so the union has been having meetings with residents' associations and civil society groups to discuss it. However, the union says that the law is problematic for two reasons:

  • the guidelines assume that one task takes 45 minutes but most domestic workers multi-task. Cyanobacteria Flagyl mexico, According to a study conducted by the union, the average time taken for one task is actually 1 hr 36mins. This they feel is unfair to the worker, as the hourly and daily rates are lower than the 45-minute rate, and it is not feasible to complete the work in half the time.
  • the assumption of a six-day week is false. Cyanobacteria Flagyl, In 161 cases out of 162, the worker did not receive a weekly day off, and did not receive overtime in lieu, according to a study conducted by the union.
The union recommends that there should be spreadsheets specifying different tasks such as sweeping, cleaning, washing, dusting, cooking etc. The time taken to complete each task should be calculated and charges fixed on this basis. The union proposes that a domestic worker doing at least three different tasks should be paid Rs 450, 40mg Cyanobacteria Flagyl. The union is also demanding a weekly day off. Social security issues are also to be discussed.

Significantly, the workers clearly articulate the need to be recognised as workers and treated with dignity and respect. As Maariyamma rightly puts it: ‘the present culture in our society has to change from one of Master-Servant to that of Employer-Employee. There are some people who treat their domestic maid with respect and sympathy. 200mg Cyanobacteria Flagyl, But how does one ensure that all workers who do domestic work get paid properly and treated with respect?’

Related resources:The domestic workers of silicon city, InfochangeDomestic Slaves, FrontlineStudy Shows Domestic Workers Endure Abuse, Cruelty Worldwide, Feminist Daily News The Anti-Feminist Brigade: Women Who Hire Domestic Workers

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August 27, 2007

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Ultra Violet will give voice to what young Indian feminists feel about life in these times. It will be an interactive space for us to discuss feminism in the context of its relevance to our lives. It will be a place where we talk about the things that are important to us -- both in our personal lives and in the larger world around us -- and the ways in which we can react, respond, negotiate or protest.


We hope to be informative, enlightening, provocative, inspiring, and (sometimes!) fun. Do drop in.


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